Publications

Implication of external price referencing and parallel trade on pharmaceutical expenditure: indirect evidence from lower-income European countries (Péter Elek et al., 2017)

Elek, P., Takács, E., Merész, G., & Kaló, Z. Health Policy and Planning, 32(3), 349-358. External price referencing (EPR) is applied more and more frequently worldwide by payers to control pharmaceutical prices. Together with the parallel trade of pharmaceuticals, EPR may result in lower pharmaceutical prices in higher-income countries and higher prices in lower-income countries, which implies that pharmaceutical expenditure grows more rapidly in the latter than in the former group. Our objective was to assess this hypothesis. We used hierarchical linear models on country-level panel data to show that—after controlling for compounding factors such as GDP, the proportion of the...

Policy objective of generic medicines from the investment perspective: The case of clopidogrel (Péter Elek et al., 2017)

Elek, P., Harsányi, A., Zelei, T., Csetneki, K., & Kaló, Z. Health Policy, 121(5), 558-565. The objective of generic drug policies in most countries is defined from a disinvestment perspective: reduction in expenditures without compromising health outcomes. However, in countries with restricted access of patients to original patented drugs, the objective of generic drug policies can also be defined from an investment perspective: health gain by improved patient access without need for additional health budget. This study examines the investment aspect of generic medicines by analyzing clopidogrel utilization in European countries between 2004 and 2014 using multilevel panel data models. We...